A turbocharger, or turbo (colloquialism), from Greek “τύρβη” (“wake”), (also from Latin “turbo” (“spinning top”),) is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an engine’s efficiency and power by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber.
In an internal combustion engine a turbocharger (often called a turbo) is a forced induction device that is powered by the flow of exhaust gases. It uses this energy to compress the intake gas forcing more air into the engine in order to produce more power for a given displacement
This improvement over a naturally aspirated engine’s output results because the turbine can force more air and more fuel into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. The term “supercharger” is usually applied to only mechanically driven forced induction devices.
The critical difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that the latter is mechanically driven by the engine, often through a belt connected to the crankshaft. In contrast, a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine’s exhaust gas.
Compared to a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger. Turbochargers are commonly used on trucks, cars, trains, aircraft, and construction equipment engines. They are often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. They have also been found useful in automotive fuel cells.